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Appendix A: Second language learning of reading and writing


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Last updated 26 October 2012 15:28 by NZTecAdmin

Skill

Literacy learners who are native speakers are assumed to: ESOL literacy learners are assumed to :

General

  • have had some (not necessarily positive) literacy experiences in English, and
  • have acquired a degree of literacy in English
  • have had some literacy experiences in their first language, and
  • have acquired a degree of literacy in their first language.

Note that first language literacy needs to develop to a certain level if it is to benefit ESOL literacy development (Riches & Genesee, 2006, p. 78).

Read: Decoding

  • have some degree of phonological awareness in English
  • have a bank of automatically recognised vocabulary, and
  • have a far larger oral vocabulary in English to underpin their reading vocabulary.
  • have some degree of phonological awareness in their first language
  • have a bank of automatically recognised vocabulary, and
  • be able to (in some cases) draw on cognates from their first language to underpin their reading vocabulary in English.

Note that phonological awareness is seen to some degree as an underlying proficiency, knowledge of which will transfer to some extent to the second language context (Riches & Genesee, 2006, pp. 73–74).

Read: Comprehending

  • need support to use appropriate strategies if they are unsuccessful readers in English.
  • need support to use appropriate strategies if they are unsuccessful readers in their first language and, consequently, in English

BUT

  • need little support with strategies if they are successful readers in their first language.

This is because unsuccessful readers see reading in English and reading in their first language as separate processes and tend not to make use of transfer. However, readers who are successful readers in their first language employ similar strategies in English as they do in their first language (Riches & Genesee, 2006, p. 79). In addition, they make greater use of textual features than first language readers and have “access to a bilingual reservoir of literacy abilities and strategies” (Riches & Genesee, 2006, p. 80).

Write: Encoding

  • have some awareness of sound-letter correspondences in English
  • have a bank of words they can write accurately.
  • have some problems with spelling.

This is because differences in the sound-letter correspondence in the first language and in English are likely to result in negative transfer from the first language (Riches & Genesee, 2006, p. 74).

Write: Planning and Composing; Revising and Editing

  • use ineffective or less sophisticated strategies for constructing text if they are unsuccessful writers.
  • use ineffective or less sophisticated strategies for constructing text if they are unsuccessful writers in their first language

BUT

  • employ similar strategies in English as they do in their first language if they are successful writers in their first language.

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