The writing progressions, in adopting a similar sequence to the reading progressions, reflect the fact that reading and writing are closely connected processes. We know that a major factor in writing success is the fact that writers have engaged in reading. They draw on knowledge of vocabulary, language and text features gained in reading to use as resources. They use strategies from reading to help them in the task of constructing text and reviewing what they have written.64
The Purpose and Audience progression is an important progression to begin a consideration of writing development. It draws attention to the socio- cognitive demands that writing places on a writer. The writer needs to consider the knowledge and expectations of an intended audience (or audiences), the purpose (or purposes) for writing and the context in which the writing is carried out. Writers need to juggle these complex demands.65
The Spelling progression, the Vocabulary progression and the Language and Text Features progression together represent the structural knowledge that writers need to have to create not only accurate texts, but ones that are appropriate for their audience and fit for their purpose.
The four progressions that precede the Planning and Composing progression all represent the type of knowledge that writers need to draw on as they are planning, both before and during composing.
The Reviewing and Editing progression, like the Planning and Composing progression that precedes it, represents part of the writing process as it is described by a long tradition of writing researchers.66 While these two progressions are often presented together in a four part sequence,67 in practice we know that writers, especially as they become more expert, work recursively in cycles of planning, composing reviewing and editing. They do this in relation to the intentions they have and the language they use to realise their intentions.68
The learning progressions take into account the role of language in writing development. They therefore describe how expertise develops in the area of language use, including expertise in the use of grammar, vocabulary, discourse markers and punctuation.69 These considerations apply to adults for whom English is their first language as well as to ESOL learners.
As adults progress from beginner to expert writers, the ways in which they carry out the processes of writing change. These changes are reflected in the progressions.