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Speak: Language and Text Features progression


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Last updated 10 January 2013 11:32 by NZTecAdmin

To communicate effectively, speakers use their knowledge of language features and the features of oral texts in English. Features of oral texts include the different parts of the text and the cohesive devices, such as sequencing, that link the parts. Different oral text types have different characteristic features. This progression also includes the features of speech that relate to the speaker’s pace and intonation and to how they stress certain words or sounds.

Most adults will be able to:
Activities
1.
  • take part in short spoken conversations and speak by themselves using formulaic phrases and simple structures.

Speakers use and respond verbally to simple language forms and some formulaic expressions, such as those used for questions (“What is your name?”; “Can I help you?”) and for instructions (“Write your name here”; “Pass me the hammer.”). Areas of study can include:

  • extending the repertoire of formulaic expressions that learners can use in a variety of familiar situations
  • using common formulaic expressions appropriately in response to questions.

Greeting, meeting and parting

Learners make choices and practise commonly-used ways of greeting, introducing and farewelling people. Customary practices such as whaikorero can also be included in this scope.

Elaborating

Learners explore ways in which they can add precision, interest and clarity to their speech.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

Using formal and informal language

Learners are taught to be aware of different kinds of talk and how they can adjust and adapt their speaking to match audience, purpose and context.

Using signpost words (discourse markers)

Learners explore the words (discourse markers) used to indicate different parts of a spoken text.

Verb tenses

Learners identify areas of confusion and are taught simple rules and exceptions about tenses.

  • take part in short spoken conversations and speak by themselves using formulaic phrases and simple structures.
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2.
  • take part in spoken conversations and use a few oral text types, such as simple instructions and descriptions
  • speak using some complex phrases and structures.

Speakers can use simple sentences in conversations. They use appropriate language features when giving oral instructions (for example, imperative verbs such as “Open the door!”) or when describing a simple process (for example, such discourse markers as first, then and next). Areas of study can include:

  • extending simple descriptions or explanations by adding details.

Greeting, meeting and parting

Learners make choices and practise commonly-used ways of greeting, introducing and farewelling people. Customary practices such as whaikorero can also be included in this scope.

Asking questions

Learners to identify some specific situations in which they wish to improve their questioning skills, using listening and speaking.

Elaborating

Learners explore ways in which they can add precision, interest and clarity to their speech.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

Using formal and informal language

Learners are taught to be aware of different kinds of talk and how they can adjust and adapt their speaking to match audience, purpose and context.

Using notes to speak

Learners are taught strategies they can use as they prepare to speak on a topic.

Using signpost words (discourse markers)

Learners explore the words (discourse markers) used to indicate different parts of a spoken text.

Verb tenses

Learners identify areas of confusion and are taught simple rules and exceptions about tenses.

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4.
  • use complex sentence structures and more complex language features to express a point of view in spoken conversations and in using more complex oral text types
  • use appropriate language features to establish coherence in connected discourse.

Speakers use more complex grammatical constructions in more formal text types, such as extensive informational reports. Speakers use discourse markers to ensure their connected discourse is coherent. In face-to-face conversations and other speaking situations, speakers use prosodic features such as patterns of stress and intonation, for example, “I asked you your wha - nau name”. Areas of study can include:

  • discussing the ways in which a sequence of ideas can be signalled, for example in a set of instructions, an oral report, a story or an argument
  • exploring the ways in which changes in stress and intonation can alter the impact of a spoken message (for example, an instruction, a greeting or a response) and discussing the effects of the changes.

Asking questions

Learners to identify some specific situations in which they wish to improve their questioning skills, using listening and speaking.

Listening and discussing

Learners develop their ability to listen for meaning and to demonstrate understanding through discussion. This also involves critical and interactive skills.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

Using formal and informal language

Learners are taught to be aware of different kinds of talk and how they can adjust and adapt their speaking to match audience, purpose and context.

Using notes to speak

Learners are taught strategies they can use as they prepare to speak on a topic.

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5.
  • use complex sentence structures and extend their use of language features to achieve particular purposes.

Speakers use language features in complex, extended discourse both when interacting with others (for example, in debates) and when speaking alone (for example, when giving complex explanations and/or reading written texts aloud). Areas of study can include:

  • practising speaking (reading aloud or telling) a variety of short texts aloud, using stress and intonation to support the meaning. Examples could include telling or reading a story to young children, or explaining a complex process
  • discussing when it may or may not be appropriate to use complex words and sentence structures to express an idea to different audiences. This could include consideration of the needs of the listener and the purpose of the interaction.

Asking questions

Learners to identify some specific situations in which they wish to improve their questioning skills, using listening and speaking.

Listening and discussing

Learners develop their ability to listen for meaning and to demonstrate understanding through discussion. This also involves critical and interactive skills.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Using notes to speak

Learners are taught strategies they can use as they prepare to speak on a topic.

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