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Listen: Comprehension progression


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Last updated 10 January 2013 11:28 by NZTecAdmin

To listen with understanding, listeners use comprehension strategies. Many of these strategies are similar to those used for reading comprehension. For example, as listeners focus on understanding the messages conveyed in spoken English, they make connections with their own knowledge, they ask questions and they infer meanings that have been implied but not made explicit.

Most adults will be able to:
Activities
1.
  • listen for the gist or for specific information in simple speech in very familiar situations
  • ask for repetition or a change of pace if necessary
  • make connections with their own knowledge to improve their understanding.

Listeners use strategies in order to get the gist of speech in very familiar situations. Although they may not understand every word spoken, they are aware that they can ask for repetition or a change of pace and they use what they already know about the topic and about words and language to help them understand. Areas of study can include:

  • responding to simple instructions that have a few basic steps and where the steps are clear (for example, where words such as first, next, then are used to indicate sequence)
  • listening for key words and making connections with the learner’s own knowledge
  • asking simple questions to show understanding or seek clarification.

Elaborating

Learners explore ways in which they can add precision, interest and clarity to their speech.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

Using signpost words (discourse markers)

Learners explore the words (discourse markers) used to indicate different parts of a spoken text.

  • listen for the gist or for specific information in simple speech in very familiar situations
  • ask for repetition or a change of pace if necessary
  • make connections with their own knowledge to improve their understanding.
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2.
  • listen for the gist or for specific information in some connected discourse on familiar topics
  • have an awareness of what to do and how to do it when comprehension breaks down
  • use some comprehension strategies.

Listeners apply their knowledge of words, of how language is used and of the world to get the gist of sentence-length statements and some connected discourse on familiar topics. Listeners are aware that what they hear should make sense and they are developing the use of such listening comprehension strategies as listening for key ideas, asking questions and inferring information. Areas of study can include:

  • listening to short oral texts, such as recounts, and then retelling them
  • making connections with prior knowledge in order to understand connected discourse
  • listening for and identifying relevant information to pass on to another person.

Building on prior knowledge

Learners use prior knowledge before, during and after listening to help them focus on and understand the talk.

Elaborating

Learners explore ways in which they can add precision, interest and clarity to their speech.

Listening for details

Learners listen for details in specific situations (such as passing on messages), and communicate those details to others.

Sequencing a process

Learners are taught strategies to get the gist as they listen and to determine the order or sequence of steps in a process.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

Using signpost words (discourse markers)

Learners explore the words (discourse markers) used to indicate different parts of a spoken text.

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3.
  • listen for the gist or for specific information in more complex discourse
  • use a range of comprehension strategies
  • use knowledge of what to do and how to do it when comprehension breaks down
  • understand discourse on familiar topics.

Listeners apply their knowledge of words, of how language is used and of the world to get the gist of more complex connected discourse on familiar topics. Topics may include those related to personal background and needs, social conventions and everyday tasks. Types of oral texts may include instructions, narratives and recounts that include a time sequence. Areas of study can include:

  • listening to short lectures and then summarising them
  • listening and responding appropriately to open-ended questions, for example, when role playing a job interview.

Building on prior knowledge

Learners use prior knowledge before, during and after listening to help them focus on and understand the talk.

Elaborating

Learners explore ways in which they can add precision, interest and clarity to their speech.

Listening and discussing

Learners develop their ability to listen for meaning and to demonstrate understanding through discussion. This also involves critical and interactive skills.

Listening critically

Learners develop skills to identify a speaker’s purpose and point of view, determine possible bias, and to give their own opinion about what they have heard.

Listening for details

Learners listen for details in specific situations (such as passing on messages), and communicate those details to others.

Recognising the impact of words

Learners explore the ways in which words work together to develop an understanding of collocations, denotations and connotations.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Sequencing a process

Learners are taught strategies to get the gist as they listen and to determine the order or sequence of steps in a process.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

Using signpost words (discourse markers)

Learners explore the words (discourse markers) used to indicate different parts of a spoken text.

Collapse
4.
  • understand discourse on less familiar topics.

Listeners get the gist of more complex connected discourse on less familiar topics. Areas of study can include:

  • listening to a straightforward lecture or presentation and asking appropriate questions
  • listening to and then carrying out detailed instructions (such as instructions for the many tasks required to prepare for a community or work-related event).

Building on prior knowledge

Learners use prior knowledge before, during and after listening to help them focus on and understand the talk.

Listening and discussing

Learners develop their ability to listen for meaning and to demonstrate understanding through discussion. This also involves critical and interactive skills.

Listening critically

Learners develop skills to identify a speaker’s purpose and point of view, determine possible bias, and to give their own opinion about what they have heard.

Listening for details

Learners listen for details in specific situations (such as passing on messages), and communicate those details to others.

Recognising the impact of words

Learners explore the ways in which words work together to develop an understanding of collocations, denotations and connotations.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Sequencing a process

Learners are taught strategies to get the gist as they listen and to determine the order or sequence of steps in a process.

Taking turns

Learners explore the many ways in which participants in a conversation give and use cues for taking turns.

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5.
  • understand discourse on a range of topics beyond everyday contexts and immediate experiences
  • listen for the gist or for specific information in a wide range of oral texts
  • use comprehension strategies selectively and flexibly
  • use a range of strategies when comprehension breaks down in different listening situations.

Listeners get the gist of a wide range of complex connected discourse in a variety of situations. Topics may include those associated with personal, community, work and education settings. Listeners use comprehension strategies selectively and flexibly, with an awareness of what to do and how to do it when comprehension breaks down. Areas of study can include:

  • listening to short plays, stories or poems to identify underlying themes or implied meanings
  • listening and contributing appropriately to small-group discussions on some unfamiliar topics.

Building on prior knowledge

Learners use prior knowledge before, during and after listening to help them focus on and understand the talk.

Listening and discussing

Learners develop their ability to listen for meaning and to demonstrate understanding through discussion. This also involves critical and interactive skills.

Listening critically

Learners develop skills to identify a speaker’s purpose and point of view, determine possible bias, and to give their own opinion about what they have heard.

Recognising the impact of words

Learners explore the ways in which words work together to develop an understanding of collocations, denotations and connotations.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Sequencing a process

Learners are taught strategies to get the gist as they listen and to determine the order or sequence of steps in a process.

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6.
  • understand discourse on a range of unfamiliar topics in a variety of contexts.

Listeners use a wide range of strategies to understand extended explanations and other kinds of oral texts (such as news reports, lectures and debates) on a range of unfamiliar topics in a variety of work, personal, community and academic contexts.

Building on prior knowledge

Learners use prior knowledge before, during and after listening to help them focus on and understand the talk.

Listening and discussing

Learners develop their ability to listen for meaning and to demonstrate understanding through discussion. This also involves critical and interactive skills.

Listening critically

Learners develop skills to identify a speaker’s purpose and point of view, determine possible bias, and to give their own opinion about what they have heard.

Recognising the impact of words

Learners explore the ways in which words work together to develop an understanding of collocations, denotations and connotations.

Retelling, summarising

Learners select the most important ideas or information and retell them in a coherent way so that a listener can get the gist of the story or event that is being retold.

Sequencing a process

Learners are taught strategies to get the gist as they listen and to determine the order or sequence of steps in a process.

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