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Planning and Composing


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Last updated 10 January 2013 11:34 by NZTecAdmin

When writing to communicate, writers use strategies within a writing process to plan and compose texts. The initial steps in the writing process are usually planning (deciding what to write about and how to approach the task) and composing (recording thoughts, ideas and information).

  • Find more information about the writing process and the development of expertise in planning and composing.
Most adults will be able to:
Activities
1.
  • write single words and simple phrases to convey information in a readable draft
  • use a highly structured template or model to write a simple text on a very familiar topic.

Writers gain confidence by using models and templates as they begin to write texts. Models can include short sentences about a learner’s personal experience dictated by the learner and recorded by the tutor, simple printed forms and other simple texts on familiar topics for specific purposes. Support can be provided in the form of highly structured templates, writing frames or graphic organisers. Areas of study can include:

  • brainstorming ideas for a specific purpose and then following a model to develop one idea into a sentence
  • writing down telephone messages that are accurate and understandable.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

Using writing frames

Learners use writing frames to support extended writing.

  • write single words and simple phrases to convey information in a readable draft
  • use a highly structured template or model to write a simple text on a very familiar topic.
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2.
  • write a short, comprehensible text using simple sentences, with support if necessary
  • use knowledge of text structure to identify and organise a limited number of ideas around a familiar topic.

Writers plan and compose short, comprehensible texts that organise a limited number of ideas around a familiar topic, sometimes with support. Writers are also able to take notes (when listening to spoken texts) that are not in the form of complete sentences, but convey the essential information required. Areas of study can include:

  • listing possible topics for writing and then generating ideas for sentences about one or more of the topics
  • building on an idea and extending a sentence by adding descriptive detail
  • taking notes for oneself or to pass on to someone else.

Shared paragraph writing

Learners write together to work through the process of structuring content and selecting the most appropriate language.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

Using templates and acronyms

Learners focus on analysing the purpose for writing and constructing cohesive sentences and paragraphs.

Using writing frames

Learners use writing frames to support extended writing.

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3.
  • use simple planning strategies
  • use knowledge of text structure to organise a limited number of ideas in a few short, well-linked paragraphs with several supporting details and/or examples
  • write a simple, comprehensible text that conforms to an appropriate text type.

Writers select simple planning strategies appropriate to their needs and purposes. They use their knowledge of text types (such as recounts, narratives and arguments) and make choices that reflect their purpose. Writers can organise a limited number of ideas about a topic into a few short, well-linked paragraphs with several supporting details and/or examples. Areas of study can include:

  • developing an idea into a paragraph and writing several related ideas as linked paragraphs
  • expanding a simple sentence into one or more sentences that give fuller details, for example, by adding examples to a letter of complaint.

Brainstorming

Learners link what they know already to what they want to write.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Structured overviews

Learners understand key words and ideas in order to write about specific content.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

Using templates and acronyms

Learners focus on analysing the purpose for writing and constructing cohesive sentences and paragraphs.

Using writing frames

Learners use writing frames to support extended writing.

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4.
  • use multiple planning strategies
  • use knowledge of text types and their structures to select appropriate text forms and media for the purpose
  • write text with some fluency, using a limited variety of complex sentence structures and rhetorical patterns
  • use strategies to select and incorporate relevant information or ideas from one or more sources
  • have an awareness of voice and know how to adapt their writing to express the voice they choose to use.

Writers use a wide range of planning strategies, selecting and using methods that suit their purposes. They keep their purpose and audience in mind as they select relevant information or ideas they want to record and choose the most appropriate medium to use (for example, handwriting on paper, a web page, or a mural with words and images). Writers use what they already know about text types and structures (forms) to organise their ideas. Their writing is reasonably fluent and coherent and uses a consistent and engaging voice (refer to glossary for a definition of voice in this sense). Areas of study can include:

  • writing sentences with complex structures
  • using rhetorical patterns, such as asking questions or repeating certain phrases
  • using a wide range of sources for information.

Brainstorming

Learners link what they know already to what they want to write.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Structured overviews

Learners understand key words and ideas in order to write about specific content.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

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6.
  • select from and use a range of tools (including computer tools) for overall planning and organisation
  • use their knowledge of text types, text structures and media to communicate information or ideas in the most effective ways
  • fluently write extended, coherent texts of various types with appropriate detail, using a variety of sentence and text structures.

Writers use a range of tools (including computer tools and other digital tools) to plan and compose extended, coherent texts with appropriate detail. They use a variety of sentences within the structures of different text types. They can adapt their writing to meet the needs of different audiences (including the appropriate and correct use of Māori terms and greetings) and they have a sense of themselves as writers with a distinctive voice which they can vary to suit their purpose and audience.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

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