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Language and Text Features


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Last updated 10 January 2013 11:35 by NZTecAdmin

When writing to communicate, writers use their knowledge of language features, grammar and the features of written texts. Features of written texts include the length and layout of the text, the different parts of the text and the cohesive devices, such as the sequencing of paragraphs, that link the parts. Different written text types have different characteristic features. Other text features that writers may need to be able to use include visual language features such as tables, charts, maps, illustrations and photographs.

Most adults will be able to:
Activities
1.
 

Adults need to gain familiarity with written words and sentences and the purposes of texts in order to develop initial understandings about specific grammar and text types.

Print and word concepts

Information and activities that refer to the rules, conventions and practices that govern the use of print and the written English language.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

2.
  • be able to use basic grammar and punctuation to construct short, simple sentences and compound sentences
  • use punctuation effectively to show where sentences begin and end
  • know and use the basic features of some common text types and visual text forms.

Writers use simple, common grammatical constructions to compose simple sentences and compound sentences (for example, by joining two simple sentences with a conjunction). They choose language features (such as tense) and/or particular visual language features (such as a table to present information) according to the purpose for writing and the type of text. They can use these features appropriately in the texts they compose. Areas of study can include:

  • identifying and using the characteristics of some text types, for example, the use of past tense in reports and the present tense in descriptions.

Organising and linking ideas

Learners use a list of connective words and phrases to sequence and link a series of sentences and paragraphs.

Shared paragraph writing

Learners write together to work through the process of structuring content and selecting the most appropriate language.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

Using templates and acronyms

Learners focus on analysing the purpose for writing and constructing cohesive sentences and paragraphs.

Using writing frames

Learners use writing frames to support extended writing.

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3.
  • use effective sentence structures and more complex punctuation to write more complex sentences with detail and elaboration
  • write longer texts that flow well and make sense
  • have and apply a knowledge of the features and structures of a wider range of text types.

Writers use a wider variety of punctuation and grammatical constructions to compose sentences and paragraphs. They use language features that make a text more cohesive, for example, words to indicate sequence (first, second) or to clarify the links between ideas (but, however, in contrast). They know how to use the language features characteristic of some text types, including instructions, reports and explanations. They use visual text forms to enhance the effectiveness of their writing. Areas of study can include:

  • examining the correct and effective use of punctuation, for example, to mark and combine clauses within sentences by using commas, colons and semicolons
  • analysing the language features of a variety of text types such as descriptive adjectives, adverbs and the present tense (Weta look like large, brown grasshoppers.) in reports; and the passive voice in explanations (When the two substances have been combined)
  • using tables to present data or hypertext to help readers make links to related material.

Organising and linking ideas

Learners use a list of connective words and phrases to sequence and link a series of sentences and paragraphs.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Structured overviews

Learners understand key words and ideas in order to write about specific content.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

Using templates and acronyms

Learners focus on analysing the purpose for writing and constructing cohesive sentences and paragraphs.

Using writing frames

Learners use writing frames to support extended writing.

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5.
  • use complex sentence and paragraph structures across a wide range of complex texts
  • use a full range of punctuation and discourse markers to communicate meaning
  • structure longer texts by using paragraphs and sub-headings to present information and ideas effectively.

Writers are familiar with the grammatical structures and sophisticated punctuation used in long, complex fiction and non-fiction texts. They can write effective paragraphs that include both general and particular information (for example, by moving from a claim to reasons justifying the claim) and they can use sub-headings to break up a text and signpost changes of focus. They can use language features to create shifts in meaning (for example, through a change of tense). Areas of study can include:

  • using rhetorical patterns, for example, the pattern If … happens, the result will be … to describe cause and effect, or the pattern We accept that …to concede a point in an argument
  • using the language features associated with more specialised texts, for example, the extensive noun phrases (The unexpected reaction to the presence of an acid indicates…) used in many academic texts and the rhetorical questions (You wouldn’t want our old people to live away from the whānau, would you?) commonly used in argument texts
  • words (especially Greek and Latin roots), prefixes and suffixes.

Using a shared approach to writing

Tutor and learners contribute to the plan, the ideas, and the language of a text they construct together.

Sharing quality work

Learners read and analyse good models to gain a clearer understanding of what they are expected to write.

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