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Language and Text Features progression

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Last updated 10 January 2013 11:25 by NZTecAdmin

To read with understanding, readers use their knowledge of language features, grammar and the features of written texts. Features of written texts include the length and layout of the text, the different parts of the text and the cohesive devices, such as the sequencing of paragraphs, that link the parts. Different written text types have different characteristic features. Other texts that readers need to understand include static visual texts, such as tables, charts, maps, illustrations and photographs, and visual texts with moving images, such as movies, and TV advertisements and programmes.

Most adults will be able to:
  • understand that groups of words work together in meaningful units.

Readers recognise that phrases and other groups of words are important elements in sentences. They use this knowledge to understand where important content is located. Readers also use this knowledge to help their chunking of words, which leads to later fluency. Areas of study can include:

  • finding the words that carry meaning in a simple phrase or sentence
  • reading phrases and simple sentences aloud to show understanding of the grouping of the words.

Environmental print

Background information and teaching and learning ideas for using environmental print.

Print and word concepts

Background information and teaching and learning ideas for print and word concepts.

  • understand that groups of words work together in meaningful units.
  • understand short, simple texts that are made up of simple sentences and compound sentences
  • understand how capital letters and full stops are used to show where sentences begin and end
  • recognise some common text types
  • recognise some common visual text forms.

Readers recognise simple sentences and compound sentences (for example, two simple sentences joined by a conjunction). They use their knowledge of simple punctuation and of common grammatical constructions to understand written texts. They understand how written texts include particular language features (such as the past tense) and/or particular visual language features (such as a table to present information) that suit the writer’s purpose. The purpose for writing determines the text type and specific text types have typical features. Readers can identify such features in the texts they read and view. Areas of study can include:

  • finding the simple sentences within a compound sentence
  • reading texts aloud with expression to show understanding of the use of punctuation
  • identifying the typical features of some common text types (for example, reports generally use the past tense and descriptions the present tense).

Structured overviews

Learners understand key words and ideas and identify relationships between these words and ideas.

Navigating a text

Learners skim and scan a text to identify its structure, key ideas and some detail.

  • understand a variety of sentence structures and paragraph structures within more complex texts
  • be aware of how clauses can be combined and marked with commas, semicolons, or colons within complex sentences
  • understand how simple clauses can be elaborated by adding words and phrases
  • recognise the features and structures of a wider range of text types
  • be aware of a range of visual text forms that can be combined with or included in written texts.

Readers recognise a wider variety of punctuation features and grammatical constructions. They use this knowledge to comprehend vocabulary, sentences and paragraphs. They understand the specific language features characteristic of some text types, including instructions, reports and explanations. Readers can identify language features that make a text more cohesive, or that clarify the links between ideas. They understand some ways in which writers use visual text forms to enhance the effectiveness of written text (for example, by using tables to present data, by using hypertext to help readers make links to related material, or by using bilingual letterheads).
Areas of study can include:

  • analysing the language and visual features of some text types (for example, the use of description in a report, the use of a flow chart in an explanation)
  • exploring the ways in which hypertext can be used when searching for information.

Surveying language and text structure

Learners scan a text to get an overview of its organisation and clues to its content.

Navigating a text

Learners skim and scan a text to identify its structure, key ideas and some detail.

  • understand a variety of sentence structures and paragraph structures across a wide range of complex texts
  • understand that the information in well constructed paragraphs includes both general and particular information, for example, a paragraph may move from a claim to reasons justifying the claim
  • be aware of rhetorical patterns that are common to many text types, such as descriptions of cause and effect
  • recognise the features and structures of a wide range of text types, including some specialised text types such as instruction manuals.

Readers are familiar with the structures of long, complex fiction and non-fiction texts. They can identify ways in which language features are used to create shifts in meaning (for example, through a change of tense).
They recognise the purposes of the language features associated with more specialised text types (for example, the detailed descriptions in many academic texts and the rhetorical questions commonly used in argument texts).

Surveying language and text structure

Learners scan a text to get an overview of its organisation and clues to its content.





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